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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Date data sharing statement initially provided
Date results information initially provided
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Comparing peripherally inserted central catheter outcomes in adults; a pilot randomised controlled trial
Scientific title
Randomised controlled trial in adults of polyurethane PICC with endexo incorporated versus standard care polyurethane PICC to prevent PICC complication and failure
Secondary ID [1] 290545 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Central venous access device failure prior to completion of therapy 300985 0
Condition category
Condition code
Public Health 300780 300780 0 0
Health service research

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Patients in this study have peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) inserted in the RBWH department of medical imaging. Consenting patients (if appropriate) will have the type of PICC inserted randomised to either one of the following randomly assigned products

Arm 1: BioFlo polyurethane PICC with endexo technology
Arm 2 (Control): Arrow polyurethane PICC

The randomly allocated PICC will be inserted using standard technique for insertion and will remain insitu until completion of therapy, or complication requiring removal. Patients will be followed until device removal, the maximum duration of follow up is 4 weeks.
Intervention code [1] 296405 0
Intervention code [2] 296406 0
Treatment: Devices
Comparator / control treatment
Arm 2 (Control): Arrow Polyurethane PICC is a PICC line with a soft polyurethane plastic for increased patient comfort whilst still offering the stability and strength of first generation polyurethane with the ability to power inject contrast at higher pressures
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 300200 0
PICC failure or complication: Composite measure of any reason for unplanned PICC removal or complication prior to the completion of therapy. This includes (i) central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI); (ii) local infection of skin; (iii)device occlusion; (iv)venous thrombosis; (v) PICC fracture or dislodgement. The primary outcome of device failure is an objective measure, assigned by clinical staff (not research staff or investigators). This is routine clinical practice. Research staff will collect the primary endpoint from the medical records with additional information obtained from the clinical staff/patients if required.
Timepoint [1] 300200 0
At removal of device, on complication or at 4 weeks whichever time point occurs first
Primary outcome [2] 300201 0
Primary Outcome: Feasibility of a full efficacy trial as established by:
*Eligibility: Percentage of patients screened that are eligible;
*Recruitment: Percentage of eligible patients who agree to enrol;
*Retention and attrition: Percentage of participants who are lost to follow up or withdraw from study;
*Protocol adherence: Percentage of participants who receive their allocated treatment throughout their study participation;
*Missing data: Percentage of data missed during study data collection;
*Parent and healthcare staff satisfaction and acceptability: Using a semi structured survey and
*Sample size estimates: a reduction in all-case CVAD failure or complication (Defined in the secondary outcomes) by at least 5% in the experimental arms, in comparison to standard care
*Biofilm formation will be identified on the internal and/or external lumens of the PICCs

Each component will be assessed by screening log, electronic data collection tool and any missed data will be obtained from electronic medical records.
Timepoint [2] 300201 0
At study completion
Secondary outcome [1] 329314 0
PICC-associated bloodstream infection (CABSI): A laboratory confirmed BSI that is not secondary to an infection at another body site (excludes Mucosal Barrier Injury LCBSI), with PICC in place for >2 calendar days on the day of the BSI (day of PICC placement being Day 1) and the PICC was in place on the date of the event or the day before, when all elements of LCBI, were first present together (see CDC NHSN for full criteria)confirmed by a blinded infectious disease specialist using de-identified clinical and microbiological data
Timepoint [1] 329314 0
At removal of device, on complication or at 4 weeks whichever time point occurs first
Secondary outcome [2] 329315 0
Local infection: Purulent phlebitis confirmed with a positive (greater than 15cfu) swab, but with negative or no blood culture, confirmed by blinded infectious disease specialist.
Timepoint [2] 329315 0
At removal of device, on complication or at 4 weeks whichever time point occurs first
Secondary outcome [3] 329316 0
Occlusion: Complete: greater than or equal to 1 lumens cannot be flushed or aspirated, or resolved post thrombolytic dwell, Partial: use of thrombolytic to resolve a withdrawal aspirate when > or equal to 1 lumen flushes but does not easily aspirate, as determined by treating clinician and data entered into electronic data collection tool
Timepoint [3] 329316 0
At removal of device, on complication or at 4 weeks whichever time point occurs first
Secondary outcome [4] 329317 0
Fracture: Visible split in PICC material; as examined by nursing staff and or leakage or radiographic evidence of extravasation/infiltration into tissue as determined by radiologist
Timepoint [4] 329317 0
At removal of device, on complication or at 4 weeks whichever time point occurs first
Secondary outcome [5] 329318 0
Venous thrombosis: suspected: too painful for the patient to tolerate, or Confirmed Ultrasound/venographic confirmed thrombosed vessel at the PICC site in a symptomatic patient, or a symptomatic patient with a thrombus/fibrin sheath occluding 1 or more lumen at PICC removal. The PICC material will be examined by nursing staff on device removal.
Timepoint [5] 329318 0
At removal of device, on complication or at 4 weeks whichever time point occurs first
Secondary outcome [6] 329319 0
Safety endpoints: Any local or systemic allergic reactions e.g. pruritis as assessed by research nurse and recorded in electronic data collection tool.
Timepoint [6] 329319 0
At removal of device, on complication or at 4 weeks whichever time point occurs first
Secondary outcome [7] 329320 0
PICC dwell time: hours from insertion until removal. This data will be collected on electronic data collection tool.
Timepoint [7] 329320 0
At removal of device, on complication or at 4 weeks whichever time point occurs first
Secondary outcome [8] 329321 0
Patient acceptability: using 11 point numeric rating scales
Timepoint [8] 329321 0
At removal of device, on complication or at 4 weeks whichever time point occurs first
Secondary outcome [9] 329322 0
Healthcare costs: Composite measure of estimates of direct product costs, healthcare resource utilisation (including additional equipment, staff time) and failure-associated resource usage using previously established cost estimates
Timepoint [9] 329322 0
At study completion.
Secondary outcome [10] 329323 0
Staff satisfaction and acceptability ranked on a 11 point scale
Timepoint [10] 329323 0
At device insertion and removal of device, on complication or at 4 weeks whichever time point occurs first
Secondary outcome [11] 329324 0
Phlebitis - Any sign of chemical, mechanical or infective phlebitis as determined by patient complaint of pain and nurse examining PICC site
Timepoint [11] 329324 0
At removal of device, on complication or at 4 weeks whichever time point occurs first

Key inclusion criteria
Require PICC insertion at department of medical imaging for fluid or medication administration;
Able to provide informed consent
Minimum age
16 Years
Maximum age
No limit
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
*non-tunnelled, tunnelled, dialysis or implanted CVADs or pulmonary artery catheters;
*Current bloodstream infection
*PICC to be inserted through diseased, burned or scarred skin';
*Allergy to study product; and
*Previous study enrolment in this admission to hospita

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
The research nurse (RN) will screen patients daily (screening Log kept). The study RN will gain informed consent and perform randomisation. The RN will have the study products in pre-packs and liaise closely with the ordering and inserting clinician. All eligible patients will be approached for written informed consent by the RN or inserter. If this is given, the staff member uses a centralised web-based randomisation service. Allocation is fully concealed until the patient is randomised.
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Computer generated randomisation will be in a 1:1 ratio between the two study groups. Permuted blocks in randomly varied sizes will be used.
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment hospital [1] 6935 0
Royal Brisbane & Womens Hospital - Herston
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 14616 0
4029 - Herston

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 294973 0
Name [1] 294973 0
Griffith University
Address [1] 294973 0
Nathan Campus,
170 Kessels Road,
Nathan, QLD 4111
Country [1] 294973 0
Funding source category [2] 294974 0
Commercial sector/Industry
Name [2] 294974 0
Address [2] 294974 0
10 Glens Falls Tech Park,
Glens Falls,
New York
Country [2] 294974 0
United States of America
Primary sponsor type
Griffith University
Nathan Campus,
170 Kessels Road,
Nathan, QLD 4111
Secondary sponsor category [1] 293793 0
Name [1] 293793 0
Address [1] 293793 0
Country [1] 293793 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 296332 0
Children's Health Services Queensland
Ethics committee address [1] 296332 0
Level 7,
Centre for Children's Health Research,
62 Graham Street,
South Brisbane,
QLD 4101
Ethics committee country [1] 296332 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 296332 0
Approval date [1] 296332 0
Ethics approval number [1] 296332 0
HREC 15 QRCH 164

Brief summary
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) were developed to provide short to medium term vascular access for patients requiring the infusion of vessel irritant medications, or frequent blood sampling. While PICC’s provide necessary, reliable and accessible vascular access; they are associated with biological, mechanical or infectious complication. These complications result in delayed treatment, need for reinsertion, and delayed treatment of the underlying complication - causing extended admission time, increased healthcare costs, venous depletion and increased morbidity and mortality. Microbial biofilm formation makes treatment of infections more complicated since the detached microbial cells from the biofilm can repeatedly infect the blood, and these microorganisms are highly resistant to many antimicrobial agents, frequently requiring PICC removal and antibiotic treatment.

Maintaining catheter function is vital for the safe provision of treatment. BioFlo (trademark) PICC (by Angiondynamics; NY) claims to provide a novel solution and the manufacturers claim the material is resistant to blood products and biofilm development, reducing the risk of standard PICC complications including infection, fracture, thrombosis, leakage, localised swelling, accidental removal and dislodgement . These PICCs are now on the basis of some clinician preference at some Australian facilities. The effectiveness of this product at reducing PICC-associated complications as previously described has not been undertaken.

We plan to undertake a randomized controlled trial at the RBWH. Patients who consent to participate in the trial will be randomly assigned to either study group. The primary aim of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of launching a full-scale efficacy trial, using pre-defined feasibility criteria for recruitment, retention and protocol fidelity. The secondary aim is to compare the effectiveness of this new PICC technology compared to older generation PICC relating to failure and complication due to infection, occlusion, dislodgement, thrombosis, or breakage, for adults with PICC in acute care.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 70486 0
Dr Nicole Gavin
Address 70486 0
Centre for Clinical Nursing
Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital
Butterfield Street,
Herston, Queensland, 4029
Country 70486 0
Phone 70486 0
+61 7 3646 5833
Fax 70486 0
Email 70486 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 70487 0
Dr Nicole Gavin
Address 70487 0
Centre for Clinical Nursing
Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital
Butterfield Street,
Herston, Queensland, 4029
Country 70487 0
Phone 70487 0
+61 7 3646 5833
Fax 70487 0
Email 70487 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 70488 0
Dr Nicole Gavin
Address 70488 0
Centre for Clinical Nursing
Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital
Butterfield Street,
Herston, Queensland, 4029
Country 70488 0
Phone 70488 0
+61 7 3646 5833
Fax 70488 0
Email 70488 0

Data sharing statement
Will individual participant data (IPD) for this trial be available (including data dictionaries)?
No/undecided IPD sharing reason/comment
What supporting documents are/will be available?
No other documents available
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary