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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Intradialytic Laughter Yoga therapy for haemodialysis patients: A pre-post intervention feasibility study
Scientific title
The effect of laughter yoga during dialysis on psychological measures for people on haemodialysis.
Secondary ID [1] 285497 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
End stage kidney disease 293286 0
Condition category
Condition code
Renal and Urogenital 293555 293555 0 0
Kidney disease

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Trained Laughter Yoga therapists will provide 12 sessions of laughter yoga over a four week period (3 sessions per week). Each session will run for a total of 30 minutes. Firstly breathing and stretching exercises for 10 minutes consisting of: Deep belly breathing; body stretching, arms and legs; gentle neck and shoulder stretches, for example turning the head to the right and left; smiling, for example: think of something pleasant and smile and loosening up the face muscles; throat/chest/belly laugh exercise. This part aims to teach participants how to breathe deeper and more effectively to enhance oxygenation levels; ie from a shallow style of breathing to slower, deeper breathing, with the laughter eventually coming from the core. The second ten minute section will consist of facilitated laughter exercises, in conjunction with chanting ho, ho, ho, ha, ha, ha, and (one hand) clapping or slapping of the thigh (10 minutes) Facilitated laughs in this order include: greeting laugh; handshaking with therapists, and waving to others; Mexican wave; aloha laugh which is synchronized as a group; triathlon laugh (combination of running, swimming, cycling laughs); clock watching laugh; shower laugh; brushing teeth laugh; cup of tea laugh. The final 10 minutes will consist of Laughter Meditation (10 minutes) where participants are guided through a laughter meditation consisting of: body relaxing; smiling and relaxing; giggle; freestyle laughter exercise; breathing and relaxing and ending with application of ‘laughter lotion’.
Monitoring of adherence is attended to by documenting which participants undertook full intervention. Thisis straight forward as participants are all attending their usual dialysis sessions.
Intervention code [1] 290436 0
Comparator / control treatment
No comparator for this feasability study
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 293370 0
Subjective Wellbeing as measured by the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI). This is a ten item valid and reliable measure. PArticipants are asked "Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, please circle the number that best represents how satisfied you feel with your life"
1. Your life as a whole?
2. Your standard of living?
3. Your health?
4. What you are currently achieving in life?
5. Your personal relationships?
6. How safe you feel?
7. Feeling part of your community?
8. Your future security?
9. Your spirituality or religion?
Scale = 0 – 10.
Anchors: 0 – “Not at all satisfied”; 10 – “Completely satisfied”
Timepoint [1] 293370 0
T1 is after 12 sessions of laughter yoga (4 weeks). Participants are asked to complete the T1 PWI following the final Laughter Yoga session.
Secondary outcome [1] 310878 0
Lung Funtion (FEV)
Timepoint [1] 310878 0
At exactly 28 days (4 weeks) following the final session PWI and Lung function measurements are taken. This is to measure any residual effects of the laughter yoga intervention.

Key inclusion criteria
Haemodialysis patient
Monash Health
Minimum age
18 Years
Maximum age
No limit
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
Unable to communicate in English

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Non-randomised trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Fully informed signed consent following education session
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Single group
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis
This first study is a feasibility study. Descriptive and inferential statistics, and sample size estimates will be calculated using G*Power following this feasibility study.

The number of particpants (n=18) in the feasibility study will be a convenience sample from one dialysis clinic.

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 8820 0
3169 - Clayton South

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 290097 0
Name [1] 290097 0
Renal Society of Australasia
Address [1] 290097 0
PO Box 155 Heidelberg Victoria, 3084
Country [1] 290097 0
Primary sponsor type
A/Prof Paul Bennett
Center for Nursing Research
Level 2 I Block
Monash Medical Centre
246 Clayton Rd
Clayton VIC, 3169
Secondary sponsor category [1] 288803 0
Name [1] 288803 0
Address [1] 288803 0
Country [1] 288803 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 291805 0
Monash Health
Ethics committee address [1] 291805 0
246 Clayton Rd
Clayton VIC, 3169
Ethics committee country [1] 291805 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 291805 0
Approval date [1] 291805 0
Ethics approval number [1] 291805 0

Brief summary
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Laughter Yoga on patients with kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis. The hypothesis was that laughter would have an affect on psychological variables such as happiness.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Bennett PN. Laughter Yoga in Dialysis. Australian Laughter Yoga Conference. Brisbane 5-6 October 2014.

Bennett PN. Laughter and Humor in End Stage Kidney Disease. Renal Resources Seminar, Bendigo, 11-12 October, 2014

Parsons, T. Bennett, PN. Laughter Yoga on Dialysis: Exploring the perspective of nurses Canadian Association of Nephrology Nurses and Technicians. Niagara Falls, Canada. October 23-25, 2014

Bennett, PN Neal, M., Ben-Moshe, R. Parsons, T, Weinberg, M., Gilbert, K., Ockerby, C. Herbu, C., Rawson, H. & Hutchinson, AM. Laughter Yoga on Dialysis: 42nd Annual Renal Society of Australasia Conference, Melbourne, August 2014

Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 52098 0
Prof Paul Bennett
Address 52098 0
School of Nursing and Midwifey
Deakin University
221 Burwood Highway
Burwood Victoria 3125
Country 52098 0
Phone 52098 0
+61 3 92517847
Fax 52098 0
Email 52098 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 52099 0
Prof Paul Bennett
Address 52099 0
School of Nursing and Midwifey
Deakin University
221 Burwood Highway
Burwood Victoria 3125
Country 52099 0
Phone 52099 0
+61 3 92517847
Fax 52099 0
Email 52099 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 52100 0
Prof Paul Bennett
Address 52100 0
School of Nursing and Midwifey
Deakin University
221 Burwood Highway
Burwood Victoria 3125
Country 52100 0
Phone 52100 0
+61 3 92517847
Fax 52100 0
Email 52100 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary