Trial registered on ANZCTR

Trial ID
Ethics application status
Not yet submitted
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Literacy across languages in bilingual children: Can intervention in one language improve literacy skills in both languages?
Scientific title
Examination of cross-linguistic intervention effects of phonological awareness intervention on literacy skills in German-English bilingual children
Secondary ID [1] 280424 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Literacy 286394 0
Condition category
Condition code
Mental Health 286647 286647 0 0
Learning disabilities

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Speech pathology intervention in English
Participants will receive 12 hours of phonological awareness intervention administered by a Speech Pathologist in small groups of 2 - 3 children over a period of 6 weeks (2 x 1 hour per week)
Intervention code [1] 284778 0
Treatment: Other
Comparator / control treatment
Same intervention as intervention group except in German
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 287051 0
The primary objective of the proposed research is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention approach for bilingual children to improve their literacy skills.
The following Primary Outcome Measures will be utilised.
- Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals 4th Edition, Australian Standardised Edition (CELF-4 Australian; Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2006), a widely used standardised broad-spectrum language assessment.
- Comprehensive Test Of Phonological Processing (Wagner & Torgesen, 1999), a standardised phonological awareness measure for children aged 5 to 21 years.
- The Neale Analysis of Reading Ability 3rd Edition (Neale, 1999), a norm referenced reading assessment of connected text. This assessment measures reading accuracy and reading comprehension
- Patholinguistische Diagnostik bei Sprachentwicklungsstoerungen (Kauschke & Siegmueller, 2003)
- Test fuer Phonologische Bewusstheitsfaehigkeiten (Fricke & Schaefer, 2008)
- Salzburger Lese- und Rechtschreibtest II (Moll & Landerl, 2010)
- Hamburger Schreibprobe (May, 2002)
- Basiskompetenzen fuer Lese-Rechtschreibleistungen 1-4 (Stock, Marx & Schneider, 2003)
- Experimental probes for PA, reading and spelling
Timepoint [1] 287051 0
There will be four testing occasions:
- Pre-test 1 at start of the study
- Pre-test 2 after a 8 week break to establish a baseline
- Post-test immediately after the completion of the intervention
- Follow up test: 8 weeks following the completion of post-tests
Secondary outcome [1] 297271 0
The secondary objective of the proposed research is to examine the relationships between the bilingual children's language skills and how their skills relate across their languages.
The same assessments as described in the primary outcome will be used to assess these relationships via correlation analyses.
Timepoint [1] 297271 0
These analyses will be conducted after the completion of all follow-up assessments.

Key inclusion criteria
Participants need to meet the following inclusion criteria:
Bilingual in English and German
Attending prep to year 2
Literacy difficulties or language difficulties
Minimum age
5 Years
Maximum age
8 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
Nonverbal intellectual abilities 1 SD or more below Mean

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Not yet recruiting
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 285179 0
Government body
Name [1] 285179 0
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation)
Address [1] 285179 0
Kennedyallee 40
53175 Bonn
Country [1] 285179 0
Primary sponsor type
Murdoch Childrens Research Insitute
Flemington Road,
Parkville, VIC 3052
Secondary sponsor category [1] 284047 0
Name [1] 284047 0
Address [1] 284047 0
Country [1] 284047 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Not yet submitted
Ethics committee name [1] 287186 0
Royal Children's Hospital Human Research Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 287186 0
Flemington Road,
Parkville, VIC 3052
Ethics committee country [1] 287186 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 287186 0
Approval date [1] 287186 0
Ethics approval number [1] 287186 0

Brief summary
This study examines the intervention effects of phonological awareness intervention on the literacy skills of children who are bilingual in English and German.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 34125 0
Address 34125 0
Country 34125 0
Phone 34125 0
Fax 34125 0
Email 34125 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 17372 0
Naomi Katharina Zens
Address 17372 0
Language, Learning and Literacy
Level 5, West building
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3052
Country 17372 0
Phone 17372 0
Fax 17372 0
Email 17372 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 8300 0
Naomi Katharina Zens
Address 8300 0
Language, Learning and Literacy
Level 5, West building
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3052
Country 8300 0
Phone 8300 0
Fax 8300 0
Email 8300 0