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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Limiting weight gain in overweight and obese women during pregnancy to improve health outcomes: a randomised trial.
Scientific title
Limiting weight gain in overweight and obese women during pregnancy to improve health outcomes: a randomised trial
Secondary ID [1] 273225 0
The LIMIT trial
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Overweight or obese pregnant women. 1663 0
Condition category
Condition code
Diet and Nutrition 1768 1768 0 0
Reproductive Health and Childbirth 1769 1769 0 0
Other reproductive health and childbirth disorders

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Women randomised to the Dietary and Lifestyle Advice Group will receive a comprehensive intervention to limit weight gain in pregnancy that includes a combination of dietary, exercise and behavioural strategies, delivered by a research dietician and trained research assistants. Women will be provided with dietary advice consistent with current Australian dietary standards, that maintains a balance of carbohydrates, fat and protein. Women will be encouraged to reduce their intake of foods high in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats, while increasing their intake of fibre, and promoting consumption of two serves of fruit and five serves of vegetables each day. Exercise advice will focus on encouraging women to adopt a more active lifestyle, primarily by increasing the amount of walking. Tailoring of the intervention will be informed by stage theories of health decision making that propose that individuals progress through a series of cognitive phases when undertaking behavioural change.

Initially, there will be a 1 hour planning session with a research dietician, in which women are provided with written dietary and activity information, an individual diet and physical activity plan, a food and activity diary, recipe book and example menu plans. Women will be encouraged to set achievable goals for dietary and exercise change, supported to make these lifestyle changes and to self-monitor their progress. Additionally, women will be encouraged to identify potential barriers and enablers to facilitate the implementation of their goals. This information will be reinforced during subsequent inputs at regular intervals during pregnancy, provided by the research dietician (at 28 weeks’ gestation) and trained research assistants (via telephone call at 22, 24, and 32 weeks’ gestation and a face-face visit at 36 weeks’ gestation).
Intervention code [1] 1399 0
Comparator / control treatment
Women randomised to the Standard Care Group will continue to receive their pregnancy care according to local hospital guidelines, which does not currently include routine provision of dietary, lifestyle and behavioural advice
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 2475 0
Infant large for gestational age at birth (defined as birth weight = 90th centile for gestational age).
Timepoint [1] 2475 0
At birth
Secondary outcome [1] 4244 0
1) Adverse outcomes for the infant including preterm birth (defined as birth at less than 37 weeks gestation); mortality (defined as either a stillbirth (intrauterine fetal death after trial entry and prior to birth), or infant death (death of a live born infant prior to hospital discharge, and excluding lethal congenital anomalies)); congenital anomalies; infant birth weight >4000 grams; hypoglycaemia requiring intravenous treatment; admission to neonatal intensive care unit, or special care baby unit; hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy; nerve palsy; fracture; birth trauma; shoulder dystocia.
Timepoint [1] 4244 0
All measured once, at primary hospital discharge or death.
Secondary outcome [2] 4245 0
2) Adverse outcomes for the woman including maternal hypertension and pre-eclampsia (in accordance with recognised Australasian Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy criteria); maternal gestational diabetes (defined as a positive oral glucose tolerance test with fasting blood glucose level >5.5mmol/L, or 2 hour blood glucose level = 7.8mmol/L); need for and length of antenatal hospital stay; antepartum haemorrhage requiring hospitalisation; preterm prelabour ruptured membranes; prelabour ruptured membranes at term; chorioamnionitis requiring antibiotic use during labour; need and reason for induction of labour; any antibiotic use during labour; caesarean section; postpartum haemorrhage (defined as blood loss >600mL); perineal trauma; wound infection; endometritis; use of postnatal antibiotics; length of postnatal hospital stay; thromboembolic disease; maternal death.
Timepoint [2] 4245 0
All measured once, at primary hospital discharge.

Key inclusion criteria
Pregnant women with a singleton, live gestation between 10+0 - 20 weeks who are obese or overweight (defined as a body mass index greater that 25kg/m2).
Minimum age
Not stated
Maximum age
Not stated
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
Women with multiple pregnancy, or type 1 or type 2 diabetes diagnosed prior to pregnancy.There is no age range criteria for this trial.

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Central randomisation by phone.
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Balanced variable block permutation
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 1921 0
Name [1] 1921 0
Discipline of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide
Address [1] 1921 0
72 King William Road,
North Adelaide,
SA 5006
Country [1] 1921 0
Primary sponsor type
Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, SA.
72 King William Road,
North Adelaide,
SA 5006
Secondary sponsor category [1] 1732 0
Name [1] 1732 0
Address [1] 1732 0
Country [1] 1732 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 3575 0
Women's and Children's Hospital
Ethics committee address [1] 3575 0
Adelaide, SA,
Ethics committee country [1] 3575 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 3575 0
Approval date [1] 3575 0
Ethics approval number [1] 3575 0

Brief summary
Being overweight or obese is a major health issue for Australian women during pregnancy and childbirth. There are well documented risks associated with obesity during pregnancy, including for the mother high blood pressure, diabetes and caesarean section. Babies of mothers who are overweight or obese are more likely to be large for gestational age, need admission to the nursery and to require treatment for jaundice and low blood sugar levels.
This randomised trial will assess whether implementing a package of dietary and lifestyle advice to overweight and obese women during pregnancy to limit weight gain is effective in improving maternal, fetal and infant health outcomes.
If dietary and lifestyle advice is effective this would be a highly beneficial and cost effective treatment to redice the burden of disease to mothers and their infants caused by obesity.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 27626 0
Address 27626 0
Country 27626 0
Phone 27626 0
Fax 27626 0
Email 27626 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 10588 0
Andrea Deussen
Address 10588 0
University of Adelaide, Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Women's and Children's Hospital
Level 1, Queen Victoria Building
72 King William Road
North Adelaide SA 5006
Country 10588 0
Phone 10588 0
+61 8 8161 7657
Fax 10588 0
+61 8 8161 7652
Email 10588 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 1516 0
Dr Jodie Dodd
Address 1516 0
University of Adelaide, Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Women's and Children's Hospital
Level 1, Queen Victoria Building
72 King William Road
North Adelaide SA 5006
Country 1516 0
Phone 1516 0
+61 8 8161 7619
Fax 1516 0
+61 8 8161 7652
Email 1516 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
No Results