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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Date data sharing statement initially provided
Date results information initially provided
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
NIVORAD - A randomised phase 2 trial of nivolumab and stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer, progressing after first or second line chemotherapy.
Scientific title
NIVORAD - A randomised phase 2 trial of nivolumab and stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer, progressing after first or second line chemotherapy.
Secondary ID [1] 288518 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Advanced non-small cell lung cancer, progressing after first of second line chemotherapy 297595 0
Condition category
Condition code
Cancer 297792 297792 0 0
Lung - Non small cell

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Nivolumab 240mg every 2 weeks plus Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR).
Nivolumab (240mg) will be administered as an intravenous infusion every 2 weeks until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity.
SABR (18-20 Gy) will be administered to a single lesion between days 8 - 14 of cycle 1 of Nivolumab. The specific day of SABR will be at clinical discretion of the treating radiation oncologist. Participants will receive a single fraction SABR and SABR treatment will take approximately 1 hour.
Intervention code [1] 293882 0
Treatment: Drugs
Intervention code [2] 293883 0
Treatment: Devices
Comparator / control treatment
Nivolumab 240mg every 2 weeks alone (control). Nivolumab is continued until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity.
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 297317 0
Progression free survival (PFS) at 6 months (RECIST 1.1)
Timepoint [1] 297317 0
6 months from randomisation
Secondary outcome [1] 320708 0
Objective tumour response rate (OTRR, RECIST 1.1 and iRECIST).
Timepoint [1] 320708 0
1 year and 2 years after randomisation of all planned participants
Secondary outcome [2] 320709 0
Adverse events (CTCAE v4.03 and RTOG/EORTC RMSS)
Timepoint [2] 320709 0
1 year and 2 years after randomisation of all planned participants
Secondary outcome [3] 320710 0
Progression Free Survival (PFS) at 1 year and 2 years.
Progression Free Survival will be measured at the interval between the date of randomisation until the date that disease progression is first observed, or the date of death from any cause, whichever occurs first. Disease progression will be determined by a comparing imaging (scans) of documented disease prior to treatment to the first positive scan following study treatment.
Timepoint [3] 320710 0
1 year and 2 years after randomisation of all planned participants.
Secondary outcome [4] 320711 0
Overall survival (OS) at 1 year and 2 years
Overall Survival will be measured as the interval from the date of randomisation to the date of death from any cause.

Timepoint [4] 320711 0
1 year and 2 years after randomisation of all planned participants.
Secondary outcome [5] 321236 0
Tertiary studies aim to identify predictive biomarkers that will allow us to select patients most likely to respond to, and derive benefit from this treatment as well as the presence of other biomarkers whose presence may be indicative of better or worse longer term outcomes such as survival. These may include biomarkers which are often studied amongst patients with non-small cell lung cancer such as PD-L1 expression, EGFR and KRAS mutational status but also novel biomarkers relating to effects of radiation on the immune response.
Timepoint [5] 321236 0
Blood samples for translational research, including the identification of biomarkers will be collected on Day 1 of Cycle1, Cycle2, Cycle3, Cycle10 of study treatment with an additional blood taken at time of confirmed disease progression. Predictive and prognostic biomarkers will be determined based on patient outcomes such as objective response to treatment based on PD-L1 expression and overall survival.

Key inclusion criteria
1. Adult (18 years or over) with a histologically or cytologically confirmed diagnosis of NSCLC.
2. At least one site of disease which is suitable for stereotactic radiotherapy, but for which radiotherapy is NOT URGENTLY REQUIRED at this time. The lesion is not required to be measurable or evaluable and must be nominated before randomisation. This lesion will be irradiated in patients randomised to receive radiation. The following criteria for the irradiated lesion must be met;
• Location must exclude the mediastinum and the central nervous system (vertebrae are allowed)
• Lesion size must be <=50mm and must not have been previously irradiated
3. At least one lesion (target or non-target according to RECIST 1.1) that is separate and in addition to the lesion nominated for irradiation. This lesion cannot have been irradiated previously.
4. Must have progressed after receiving 1 or 2 lines of chemotherapy for advanced disease including a platinum-based doublet. Maintenance chemotherapy following first line chemotherapy is considered a second line of chemotherapy. Relapse within 12 months of completing curative-intent platinum-based chemotherapy given either as adjuvant to surgery or as concurrent or sequential chemo-radiotherapy is considered one line of chemotherapy.
5. ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 at the time of randomisation.
6. Adequate bone marrow function (done within 14 days prior to randomisation and with values within the ranges specified below). Blood transfusions are permissible.
• White blood cell count >= 2 x 109/L
• Absolute neutrophil count >= 1.5 x 109/L
• Platelets >= 100 x 109/L
• Haemoglobin >= 90 g/L
7. Adequate liver function (done within 14 days prior to randomisation and with values within the ranges specified below):
• Alanine transaminase <= 3 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
• Aspartate aminotransferase <= 3 x ULN
• Total bilirubin <= 1.5 x ULN (except patients with Gilbert Syndrome, who can have total bilirubin <= 5 x ULN)
8. Adequate renal function (done within 14 days prior to randomisation and with values within the ranges specified below):
• Serum creatinine <=1.5 x ULN
• Creatinine clearance (CrCl) >=40 mL/min (use Cockcroft-Gault formula as per appendix 6)
9. Tumour tissue (formalin-fixed paraffin embedded) should be available for PD-L1 testing and can be provided as a block or slides (archival tissue is acceptable). For patients without histological tumour tissue available, every attempt should be made to provide a cell block or unstained cytology slides. Patients will not be selected by PD-L1 status.
10. Willing and able to comply with all study requirements, including treatment, timing and/or nature of required assessments.
11. Signed, written informed consent.
Minimum age
18 Years
Maximum age
No limit
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
1. Active, known or suspected autoimmune disease. Patients are not excluded if they have vitiligo, type 1 diabetes mellitus, residual hypothyroidism due to an autoimmune condition requiring only hormone replacement, psoriasis not requiring systemic treatment, or conditions not expected to recur in the absence of an external trigger.
2. Any condition requiring systemic treatment with either regular corticosteroids (>10mg daily prednisone or equivalent dose of an alternative corticosteroid) or other immunosuppressive medications within 14 days of study drug administration. Intranasal, inhaled or topical steroids are permitted in the absence of active autoimmune disease.
3. Patients with leptomeningeal or uncontrolled brain metastases are excluded. Controlled brain metastases are those which have been treated and are radiologically and/or clinically stable, and the patient is asymptomatic and does not require corticosteroids.
4. Actionable mutation for which an approved, targeted therapeutic is available, e.g. known mutation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or translocation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase.
5. Chemotherapy in the last 4 weeks.
6. Radiotherapy in the last 2 weeks.
7. Prior therapy with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, anti-PD-L2, anti-CTLA-4 antibody, or any other antibody or drug specifically targeting T cell co-stimulation or immune checkpoint pathways.
8. Current treatment with other investigational drugs or anti-cancer therapy.
9. Life expectancy of less than 3 months.
10. History of another malignancy within 3 years prior to randomisation. Patients with a past history of adequately treated carcinoma-in-situ, basal cell carcinoma of the skin, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, or superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder are eligible. Patients with a history of other malignancies are eligible if they have been continuously disease free for at least 3 years after definitive primary treatment.
11. Receipt of live attenuated vaccination within 30 days prior to registration.
12. Positive test for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBVsAg) or antibodies to hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid (HCV antibody) indicating acute or chronic infection.
13. History of other significant infection, including HIV. HIV testing not mandatory unless clinically indicated.
14. Serious medical or psychiatric conditions that might limit the ability of the patient to comply with the protocol.
15. Pregnancy, lactation, or inadequate contraception. Women must be post-menopausal, infertile, or use a reliable means of contraception to avoid pregnancy for 23 weeks after the last dose of nivolumab. Women of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test done within 24 hours prior to randomisation. Men must have been surgically sterilised or use a (double if required) barrier method of contraception if they are sexually active with a woman of child bearing potential for a period of 31 weeks after the last dose of nivolumab.
16. Recipients of a transplanted solid organ (kidney, liver, heart, lung) or of allogeneic bone marrow.

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Patients must meet all eligibility criteria before being randomised.

Randomisation will be performed in an internet based central randomisation system.
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Minimisation with stratification for,
1. Age (18-70 years versus older than 70)
2. Lines of previous chemotherapy (one versus two)
3. Histology (squamous versus non-squamous)
4. Treating institution
5. Prior pulmonary radiotherapy (yes/no)
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Phase 2
Type of endpoint/s
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Stopped early
Data analysis
Data analysis is complete
Reason for early stopping/withdrawal
Lack of funding/staff/facilities
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment hospital [1] 5255 0
Royal North Shore Hospital - St Leonards
Recruitment hospital [2] 5256 0
Prince of Wales Hospital - Randwick
Recruitment hospital [3] 5257 0
Austin Health - Austin Hospital - Heidelberg
Recruitment hospital [4] 5258 0
Royal Brisbane & Womens Hospital - Herston
Recruitment hospital [5] 5259 0
Princess Alexandra Hospital - Woolloongabba
Recruitment hospital [6] 5260 0
The Royal Adelaide Hospital - Adelaide
Recruitment hospital [7] 7289 0
The Tweed Hospital - Tweed Heads
Recruitment hospital [8] 7290 0
St Vincent's Hospital (Melbourne) Ltd - Fitzroy
Recruitment hospital [9] 7292 0
Peninsula Oncology Centre - Frankston
Recruitment hospital [10] 7293 0
The Townsville Hospital - Douglas
Recruitment hospital [11] 7294 0
Genesis Cancer Care - Wesley - Auchenflower
Recruitment hospital [12] 7295 0
Flinders Medical Centre - Bedford Park
Recruitment hospital [13] 7296 0
Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital - Nedlands
Recruitment hospital [14] 7297 0
Royal Hobart Hospital - Hobart
Recruitment hospital [15] 7298 0
Nambour General Hospital - Nambour
Recruitment hospital [16] 7299 0
Sunshine Hospital - St Albans
Recruitment hospital [17] 7300 0
Sydney Adventist Hospital - Wahroonga
Recruitment hospital [18] 12431 0
Calvary Mater Newcastle - Waratah
Recruitment hospital [19] 12432 0
Fiona Stanley Hospital - Murdoch
Recruitment hospital [20] 12433 0
St John of God Hospital, Subiaco - Subiaco
Recruitment hospital [21] 12434 0
The Canberra Hospital - Garran
Recruitment hospital [22] 12435 0
Sunshine Coast University Hospital - Birtinya
Recruitment hospital [23] 12436 0
Westmead Hospital - Westmead
Recruitment hospital [24] 12437 0
Blacktown Hospital - Blacktown
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 15073 0
2076 - Wahroonga
Recruitment postcode(s) [2] 24710 0
2145 - Westmead
Recruitment postcode(s) [3] 24711 0
2148 - Blacktown
Recruitment postcode(s) [4] 24705 0
2298 - Waratah
Recruitment postcode(s) [5] 15061 0
2485 - Tweed Heads
Recruitment postcode(s) [6] 24708 0
2605 - Garran
Recruitment postcode(s) [7] 15071 0
3021 - St Albans
Recruitment postcode(s) [8] 15062 0
3065 - Fitzroy
Recruitment postcode(s) [9] 15064 0
3199 - Frankston
Recruitment postcode(s) [10] 15066 0
4066 - Auchenflower
Recruitment postcode(s) [11] 15070 0
4560 - Nambour
Recruitment postcode(s) [12] 24709 0
4575 - Birtinya
Recruitment postcode(s) [13] 15065 0
4814 - Douglas
Recruitment postcode(s) [14] 15072 0
5022 - Henley Beach
Recruitment postcode(s) [15] 15067 0
5042 - Bedford Park
Recruitment postcode(s) [16] 24707 0
6008 - Subiaco
Recruitment postcode(s) [17] 15068 0
6009 - Nedlands
Recruitment postcode(s) [18] 24706 0
6150 - Murdoch
Recruitment postcode(s) [19] 15069 0
7000 - Hobart
Recruitment outside Australia
Country [1] 8572 0
New Zealand
State/province [1] 8572 0

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 292865 0
Commercial sector/Industry
Name [1] 292865 0
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
Country [1] 292865 0
United States of America
Primary sponsor type
University of Sydney
NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre
Locked Bag 77
NSW 1450
Secondary sponsor category [1] 291611 0
Other Collaborative groups
Name [1] 291611 0
Australian Lung Cancer Trials Group
Address [1] 291611 0
Level 2, 11 Finchley Street Milton QLD 4064
Country [1] 291611 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 294366 0
Northern Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 294366 0
Research Office
Kolling Building, Level 13
Royal North Shore Hospital
St Leonards NSW 2065
Ethics committee country [1] 294366 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 294366 0
Approval date [1] 294366 0
Ethics approval number [1] 294366 0
RESP/15/311 (HREC/15/HAWKE/430)

Brief summary
The aim of this study is to determine the activity and safety of treating a site of disease with with a single fraction of SABR during immunotherapy with nivolumab in advanced NSCLC progressing after 1 or 2 lines of chemotherapy.

Who is it for?
Adults with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progressing after 1 or 2 lines of chemotherapy and with an asymptomatic metastasis suitable for SABR. Tumour blocks should be available to test for PD-L1 expression.

Study details
Participants will be randomly allocated in a ratio of 2:1 to either nivolumab 240mg every 2 weeks plus SABR (experimental) or nivolumab 240mg every 2 weeks alone (control). Nivolumab is continued until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity.

Participants will be assessed regularly for treatment response and side effects during the treatment and follow up phase. Clinical assessments will be performed before each cycle of nivolumab (2 weekly) and CT scans at baseline, week 6, 12, 18, 24 then 12 weekly until progression. Anticancer treatments and survival will be reviewed every 12 weeks after progression. This will enable us to determine the activity and safety of each treatment option in patients with an asymptomatic metastasis.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 63450 0
A/Prof Paul Mitchell
Address 63450 0
Austin Hospital
145 Studley Road
Heidelberg VIC 3084
Country 63450 0
Phone 63450 0
+61 3 9496 3546
Fax 63450 0
Email 63450 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 63451 0
Ms Nivorad Trial Coordinator
Address 63451 0
NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre
Locked Bag 77
Camperdown NSW 1450
Country 63451 0
Phone 63451 0
+61 2 9562 5000
Fax 63451 0
Email 63451 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 63452 0
A/Prof Paul Micthell
Address 63452 0
Austin Hospital
145 Studley Road
Heidelberg VIC 3084
Country 63452 0
Phone 63452 0
+61 3 9496 3546
Fax 63452 0
Email 63452 0

Data sharing statement
Will individual participant data (IPD) for this trial be available (including data dictionaries)?
No/undecided IPD sharing reason/comment
Individual Patient Data will not be made publicly available.

What supporting documents are/will be available?

No Supporting Document Provided

Results publications and other study-related documents

Documents added manually
No documents have been uploaded by study researchers.

Documents added automatically
SourceTitleYear of PublicationDOI
EmbaseThe challenge of planning vertebral body SBRT: Optimizing target volume coverage.2020
Dimensions AIOC-0607 IAEA supported national ‘end-to-end’ IMRT audit in Portugal2019
Dimensions AIOC-0606 IMRT QA: comparing independent recalculation against measurement based methods2019
Dimensions AIOC-0608 Credentialing of spine stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy in a multi-centre trial2019