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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Trial ID
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Games based professional learning for primary school teachers for the improvement of teaching quality and student outcomes of physical skills and self-perception during physical education.
Scientific title
In late stage primary school students (10 - 12 years), does a game centered approach professional development intervention, compared to normal practice, improve the quality of teaching and in turn the skills and physical self perception of students?
Secondary ID [1] 282567 0
Nil known
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Fundamental movement skills 289236 0
Physical self perception 289237 0
Quality of Teaching 289238 0
Condition category
Condition code
Public Health 289568 289568 0 0
Health promotion/education

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Teacher professional development intervention focusing on the use of a game centered approach for teaching primary Physical Education.
Intervention involves:
1- Teacher professional learning:
A 2.5 hour theory based group professional learning seminar covering: i) Physical activity research findings and theoretical grounding for improving students’ skills, ii) Game Centered Approach (GCA) background, iii) GCA comparison to a direct instruction methodology and the connection of a GCA to the existing NSW PDHPE syllabus, iv) using a constraints led approach to guide a PE lesson, v) the use of questioning to assist student cognition, vi) concepts of quality PE teaching including Active Learning Time (ALT), classroom management for improved ALT and enhanced skills learning, and identification and use of Teachable Moments in PE classes.
The professional learning component of the PLUNGE intervention is based on the training model of PD, in which content is delivered to teachers in a passive manner, with controlled, standardized content delivery.

2- Teacher mentoring:
Consultation regarding the presentation of researcher developed GCA curriculum across the 6 week delivery phase, and in-class scaffolding and feedback of curriculum delivery for the first 4 weeks of the program.
Mentoring ensures the teachers involved understand the format and purpose of the designed lessons, and for teachers to observe, undertake, problem solve and trouble shoot more effective PE practice with an academic partner, in the authentic context of their own scheduled physical education lessons (4 x 1 hour). Mentoring begins the week following the professional learning group seminar (1 week between seminar and mentoring).
Intervention code [1] 287229 0
Comparator / control treatment
Standard treatment wait-list control group.
The control group undertake the standard physical education lessons that were planned across the intervention period. The wait-list control receive the professional development intervention with two mentoring sessions after the completion of follow-up assessments (8 weeks from baseline testing).
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 289663 0
Fundamental Movement Skills are assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-2).
Timepoint [1] 289663 0
10 weeks
Secondary outcome [1] 302971 0
Physical self-perception is measured using Harter's physical self-perception profile.
Timepoint [1] 302971 0
10 weeks
Secondary outcome [2] 302972 0
Student perceived motivational climate is assessed using the Learning and Performance Orientations in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire (LAPOPECQ) (17 Questions)
Timepoint [2] 302972 0
10 weeks
Secondary outcome [3] 302973 0
Quality of teaching is assessed using observational coding of lesson activities and student/teacher interaction using NSW DET Quality Teaching lesson observation scales.
Timepoint [3] 302973 0
10 weeks
Secondary outcome [4] 302974 0
Active Learning Time (ALT) is assessed using:
1- Direct measure: Students will wear pedometers during the observation lessons.
2- Observational coding: Coding of the type and intensity of activity for students in the observational lessons using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT).
Timepoint [4] 302974 0
10 weeks

Key inclusion criteria
Teacher: Generalist primary school teacher
Student: Stage 3 (10-12 years age)

Healthy participants
Minimum age
10 Years
Maximum age
12 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
Teacher: Undergraduate P.E training
Student: Mental development disorder (eg- down syndrome)

Study design
Purpose of the study
Educational / counselling / training
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
An eligible teacher is enrolled (1 teacher per school), with all student from their class invited to participate.

Classes allocated to intervention or wait-list control. Allocation is decided post baseline assessment at an off-site location, with participants informed of group enrollment prior to intervention start.
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Flip coin allocation of pairs of classes to control or intervention.
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis
Linear mixed models.

Sample size:As this was the first intervention focused on improving FMS using GCA-based pedagogy, our power calculation was based on a previous FMS intervention targeting motivational climate in the primary school setting (Martin, Rudisill, and Hastie 2009). Martin and colleagues reported a moderate effect size for their intervention on object control motor skill proficiency using the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-2). Using an alpha of 0.05 and power of 80%, it was determined that a sample size of approximately 104 was needed to detect a between group difference of 1 unit (SD = 1.8) for the TGMD-2 throw skill test.

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 287341 0
Name [1] 287341 0
University of Newcastle
Address [1] 287341 0
University drive, Callaghan, NSW, 2308
Country [1] 287341 0
Primary sponsor type
University of Newcastle
University drive, Callaghan, NSW, 2308
Secondary sponsor category [1] 286091 0
Name [1] 286091 0
Address [1] 286091 0
Country [1] 286091 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 289320 0
University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Commitee
Ethics committee address [1] 289320 0
University drive, Callaghan, NSW, 2308
Ethics committee country [1] 289320 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 289320 0
Approval date [1] 289320 0
Ethics approval number [1] 289320 0

Brief summary
The aim of this study is to report the effects of a Game Centered Approach professional development program for improving Teaching quality, active learning time, fundamental movement skills, physical self perception and student perceived motivational climate.

The Professional Learning for Understanding Games Education (PLUNGE) program was developed to enhance the practical PE teaching skills of primary school teachers using a Game Centered Approach in an authentic teaching environment. We hypothesized that teachers in the PLUNGE intervention, compared to those in the control group, would display higher quality teaching and greater active learning time in classes, with students displaying more favorable changes in fundamental movement skills, physical self-perception and perceived motivational climate over the study period.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Miller, A., Christensen, E. M., Eather, N., Sproule, J., Annis-Brown, L., & Lubans, D. R. (2015). The PLUNGE randomized controlled trial: Evaluation of a games-based physical activity professional learning program in primary school physical education. Preventive Medicine, 74(0), 1-8. doi:

Miller, A., Eather, N., Gray, S., Sproule, J., Williams, C., Gore, J., & Lubans, D. R. (In press). Improving the Quality of Teaching in Primary School Physical Education: Effects of the Professional Learning for Understanding Games Education (PLUNGE) Intervention. European Physical Education Review.
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 40302 0
Dr Andrew Miller
Address 40302 0
EN2.05, Ourimbah campus, University of Newcastle, Chitaway Rd, Ourimbah, NSW, 2258
Country 40302 0
Phone 40302 0
+61 425 308 186
Fax 40302 0
Email 40302 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 40303 0
Dr Andrew Miller
Address 40303 0
EN2.05, Ourimbah campus, University of Newcastle, Chitaway Rd, Ourimbah, NSW, 2258
Country 40303 0
Phone 40303 0
+61 425 308 186
Fax 40303 0
Email 40303 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 40304 0
Dr Andrew Miller
Address 40304 0
EN2.05, Ourimbah campus, University of Newcastle, Chitaway Rd, Ourimbah, NSW, 2258
Country 40304 0
Phone 40304 0
+61 425 308 186
Fax 40304 0
Email 40304 0