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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Investigation of a long-term continuous glucose monitor in type 1 diabetes
Scientific title
Accuracy of long-term implantable glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes
Secondary ID [1] 292129 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Type 1 diabetes 303556 0
Condition category
Condition code
Metabolic and Endocrine 302965 302965 0 0

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
This study is designed to provide frequently-sampled data from an investigational long-term continuous glucose monitor to optimise signal processing techniques and improve sensor performance.

The investigational device is a subcutaneously implanted metal sensor about the size of a large USB that is designed to measure interstitial glucose levels. The sensor contains a small battery and a transmitter that wirelessly transmits data from the device to a handheld receiver and is stored in the receiver’s memory for later download and processing. It is fully implantable i.e. nothing is worn on the skin and will remain in-situ for approximately 4 months. It will be implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of the lower abdomen by a qualified surgeon under local anaesthetic and light sedation.

Following implantation, the sensor requires no user interaction or maintenance, although the receiver needs to be kept close by to ensure that data packets are reliably recorded. The only maintenance required for the receiver is battery changes and download of receiver data.

Participants with type 1 diabetes will have the device implanted under local anaesthetic and will undergo weekly clinic visits during the 4 months of implanted sensor wear. Additionally, participants will undergo four meal-driven glucose excursion visits where hourly capillary blood finger-prick and 15-minute venous blood glucose sampling will occur for up to 8 hours. Once per month, at one of the weekly visits, participants will be asked to wear an activity tracker and to complete the standing and sitting activity over a 1-hour and 15-minute period. Finger-prick glucose measurement will be performed before and after the one hour and 15-minute data collection.

Between clinical site visits, participants will carry a data logger receiver that records signal outputs from the implanted sensor (display shows date/time, but no glucose information), change the AAA batteries in the study receiver daily and confirm the receiver is receiving data, self-monitor blood glucose (SMBG) a minimum of 4 times per day, respond to daily text or phone call confirming the receiver is working with an appropriate date / time and record study activities in a participant diary.

Trial participants will be provided with a commercially approved continuous glucose monitor (CGM) for use during the study and participants will be trained on the use of the CGM by the study site. Participant data from the CGM (de-identified) will be downloaded during the monthly in-clinic visit.

Explantation of the sensor may occur immediately following the final meal excursion visit or up to 4 months and 20 days from the date of implant. The explantation procedure, in general, mimics the implantation procedure and is performed under local anaesthetic.
Intervention code [1] 298272 0
Treatment: Devices
Comparator / control treatment
Continuous glucose monitor values
Venous blood glucose values
Finger prick blood glucose measurements
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 302360 0
Investigational sensor MARD, compared with reference venous blood glucose measurements
Timepoint [1] 302360 0
During four in-clinic visits approximately one month apart
Secondary outcome [1] 335847 0
Investigational sensor MARD, compared with finger prick blood glucose measurements
Timepoint [1] 335847 0
At least 4x/day during at-home periods throughout the 16-week trial duration
Secondary outcome [2] 335848 0
Investigational sensor MARD, compared with reference venous blood glucose measurements during different controlled physical movements and activities
Timepoint [2] 335848 0
Once per month
Secondary outcome [3] 335886 0
Investigational sensor MARD, compared with reference continuous glucose sensor measurements
Timepoint [3] 335886 0
During at-home periods throughout the 16-week trial duration

Key inclusion criteria
* Type 1 diabetes mellitus for at least 5 years
* HbA1c <10%
Minimum age
21 Years
Maximum age
65 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
* Serious chronic illness
* Use of paracetamol during the trial

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Non-randomised trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Single group
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Not yet recruiting
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment hospital [1] 8307 0
St Vincent's Hospital (Melbourne) Ltd - Fitzroy
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 16370 0
3065 - Fitzroy

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 296667 0
Commercial sector/Industry
Name [1] 296667 0
GlySens Incorporated
Address [1] 296667 0
3931 Sorrento Valley Blvd., Suite 110
San Diego, CA 92121
Country [1] 296667 0
United States of America
Primary sponsor type
St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne
41 Victoria Pde
Fitzroy VIC 3065
Secondary sponsor category [1] 295626 0
Name [1] 295626 0
Address [1] 295626 0
Country [1] 295626 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 297892 0
St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne
Ethics committee address [1] 297892 0
Research Governance Unit
27 Victoria Pde
Fitzroy VIC 3065
Ethics committee country [1] 297892 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 297892 0
Approval date [1] 297892 0
Ethics approval number [1] 297892 0
HREC 081/17

Brief summary
Achieving optimal glucose control in type 1 diabetes requires frequent monitoring of glucose which can be burdensome for many patients. The most common methods for self-monitoring glucose involve frequent "finger-pricking" or continuous glucose monitors inserted under the skin which last up to 1-2 weeks and require at least daily calibration with finger-pricks.

The device under investigation is an implantable long-term glucose sensor that measures an individual’s glucose every 3 minutes and sends data to a receiver outside the body. Following implantation, the sensor requires no user interaction, and the receiver only needs to be kept close by. The only maintenance
required of the receiver is battery changes and data downloading. 

This study aims to collect glucose information from the implanted sensor to optimise sensor signal processing and improve sensor performance.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 75382 0
A/Prof David O'Neal
Address 75382 0
St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne
35 Victoria Pde Fitzroy VIC 3065
Country 75382 0
Phone 75382 0
+61 3 9231 2211
Fax 75382 0
Email 75382 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 75383 0
Dr Barbora Paldus
Address 75383 0
St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne
35 Victoria Pde Fitzroy VIC 3065
Country 75383 0
Phone 75383 0
+61 3 9231 2211
Fax 75383 0
Email 75383 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 75384 0
Dr Sybil McAuley
Address 75384 0
St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne
35 Victoria Pde Fitzroy VIC 3065
Country 75384 0
Phone 75384 0
+61 3 9231 2211
Fax 75384 0
Email 75384 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
No Results