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Trial registered on ANZCTR


Registration number
ACTRN12614000001695
Ethics application status
Approved
Date submitted
12/12/2013
Date registered
2/01/2014
Date last updated
24/04/2015
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Effects of various warm-ups on muscle activation and sound
quality in violinists
Scientific title
In violinists, how do various warm-ups, compared to an equivalent rest period, affect muscle activation and sound quality?
Secondary ID [1] 283714 0
Nil
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
U1111-1151-1236
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Prevention of repetitive strain injury 290678 0
Enhancement of violin performance 290679 0
Condition category
Condition code
Musculoskeletal 291046 291046 0 0
Other muscular and skeletal disorders
Other 291122 291122 0 0
Research that is not of generic health relevance and not applicable to specific health categories listed above

Intervention/exposure
Study type
Interventional
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Subjects will perform 5 short (<1 min) violin excerpts both before and after a randomly allocated warm-up or control protocol. Participants will only be required to complete either the intervention or control protocols once. The intervention groups are: core muscle warm-up, general cardiovascular warm-up, or on-instrument warm-up; the control protocol is a 15 minute period of rest. The core muscle warm-up consists of 15 minutes of low-impact exercises targeting the gluteals, abdominals, obliques, back, and shoulders (abdominal planks, gluteal bridges, lower body rotation, single-plane shoulder exercises), performed at a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 11-13. The general cardiovascular warm-up consists of a 15 minute walk at a RPE of 11-13. The participant will be required to perform 15 minutes worth of scalar warm-ups on the violin for the on-instrument warm-up. 16 electromyographic (EMG) electrodes will be attached throughout the performance of the excerpts and warm-ups to the left & right upper trapezius, left & right erector spinae, left & right lower abdominals, left & right upper abdominals, right pectoralis major, right anterior deltoid, right biceps brachii, right triceps brachii, right & left forearm flexors, and right & left forearm extensors. Questionnaires regarding current warm-up habits and pain levels, as well as any changes in pain levels resulting from the warm-up interventions, will be administered before and after the performance of the warm-ups and excerpts. Both the pre- and post-warm-up performances of the excerpts will be audio recorded and independently and anonymously critiqued by selected Sydney Conservatorium of Music faculty and/or postgraduate students for comparative sound quality.
Intervention code [1] 288405 0
Other interventions
Intervention code [2] 288406 0
Prevention
Comparator / control treatment
The control group will perform 5 short violin excerpts, followed by a 15 minute period of silent rest and a second performance of the 5 randomly ordered violin excerpts.
Control group
Active

Outcomes
Primary outcome [1] 291037 0
Change in muscle EMG levels between pre- and post-warm-up performances of violin excerpts
Timepoint [1] 291037 0
Immediately at the end of the 2nd performance of each violin excerpt
Primary outcome [2] 291038 0
Changes in audible performance quality between pre- and post-warm-up performances of violin excerpts, as anonymously critiqued by selected Sydney Conservatorium of Music faculty and/or postgraduate students for comparative sound quality.
Timepoint [2] 291038 0
Separate sessions following the initial sessions involving warm-up interventions and performance of the 5 violin excerpts. In these sessions, selected Sydney Conservatorium of Music faculty and/or postgraduate students will assess groups of randomly ordered, anonymously identified recordings of participant performances of assigned violin excerpts for comparative sound quality.
Secondary outcome [1] 305870 0
Changes in ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) between pre- and post-warm-up performances of violin excerpts. RPE will be assessed by having the participant circle the number on the Borg scale (range from 6-20) corresponding to their perceived exertion during both their pre-warm-up and post-warm-up performances of the 5 excerpts. RPE assessment will occur immediately following the performance of the 5th excerpt both at the pre- and post-warm-up timepoints.
Timepoint [1] 305870 0
Immediately following 2nd performance of violin excerpts
Secondary outcome [2] 305871 0
Changes in reported pain levels between pre- and post- warm-up performances of violin excerpts. Participant pain levels will be assessed through pre-test and post-test questionnaires.
Timepoint [2] 305871 0
Immediately following completion of the post-test questionnaire
Secondary outcome [3] 305872 0
Correlation between participant strength and/or fitness level and warm-up effects on EMG levels and sound/performance quality
Timepoint [3] 305872 0
Post-trial analysis--immediately after all participants have completed their 2nd performance of violin excerpts.
Secondary outcome [4] 305873 0
Changes in participant heart rate between pre- and post-warm-up performances of violin excerpts. Heart rate will be assessed via a Polar heart rate monitor.
Timepoint [4] 305873 0
Post-trial analysis--immediately after all participants have completed their 2nd performance of violin excerpts.
Secondary outcome [5] 305874 0
Participant perception of changes in audible performance quality between pre- and post-warm-up performances of violin excerpts. This outcome will be assessed via a question regarding participant perception of changes in performance quality between the pre- post-warm-up performances of violin excerpts in the post-test questionnaire.
Timepoint [5] 305874 0
Immediately following completion of the post-test questionnaire

Eligibility
Key inclusion criteria
University or professional violinists above the age of 18 with at least 10 years of violin playing experience
Minimum age
18 Years
Maximum age
99 Years
Gender
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Yes
Key exclusion criteria
Violinists below the age of 18 or with less than 10 years of violin playing experience that do not satisfy the distinction of either "university" or "professional" violinists.

Study design
Purpose of the study
Prevention
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Upon entry into the testing site, subjects will complete a brief questionnaire regarding their current pain levels and a 5 question validated self fitness assessment to determine current fitness levels. (from Stroyer, Jesper, et al. "Validity and reliability of self-assessed physical fitness using visual analogue scales 1." Perceptual and motor skills 104.2 (2007): 519-533.)

Using the results from these questionnaires, participants will be given one of the following 8 classifications:
Male, Fit, No Pain
Male, Fit, Pain
Male, Unfit, No Pain
Male, Unfit, Pain
Female, Fit, No Pain
Female, Fit, Pain
Female, Unfit, No Pain
Female, Unfit, Pain

Warm-up group allocation will be randomly determined within each of these 8 categories using a sealed envelope containing group designation prepared by an independent off-site assistant.
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Envelopes containing randomly ordered (randomisation via Microsoft Excel) treatment designations will be created off-site by non-study personnel for each of the 8 participant classifications.
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?



The people analysing the results/data
Intervention assignment
Parallel
Other design features
Phase
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Efficacy
Statistical methods / analysis
A power analysis conducted with the G*Power 3.1 computer program and using the results of previous warm-up interventions in electromyographic research with athletes indicated a subject size of 14 per group to be necessary to gain significant results.(1-3) Given this, 60 total subjects (15 per group) will be recruited to provide a buffer for any data collection and/or unforseen errors.

After testing, SPSS will be used to conduct means comparison, ANOVA, and linear regression tests between the pre- and post-intervention EMG, heart rate, sound quality, and questionnaire response data.

1. Wallamann, HW, Mercer JA, McWhorter JW. Surface electromyographic assessment of the effect of static stretching of the gastrocnemius on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2005, 19(3), 684-688.
2. Sotiropoulos K et. al. Effects of warm-up on vertical jump performance and muscle electrical activity using half-squats at low and moderate intensity. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2010, 9, 326-331.
3. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Buchner A, Lang AG. Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 2009, 41, 1149-1160.

Recruitment
Recruitment status
Completed
Date of first participant enrolment
Anticipated
Actual
Date of last participant enrolment
Anticipated
Actual
Date of last data collection
Anticipated
Actual
Sample size
Target
Accrual to date
Final
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
ACT,NSW,VIC
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 7621 0
2000 - Sydney
Recruitment postcode(s) [2] 7622 0
2600 - Canberra
Recruitment postcode(s) [3] 7623 0
3000 - Melbourne
Recruitment outside Australia
Country [1] 6844 0
New Zealand
State/province [1] 6844 0

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 288391 0
Government body
Name [1] 288391 0
Australian-American Fulbright Commission
Address [1] 288391 0
PO Box 9541
DEAKIN ACT 2600
Country [1] 288391 0
Australia
Primary sponsor type
Individual
Name
Dr. Bronwen Ackermann
Address
The University of Sydney, Cumberland Campus
75 East Street
Lidcombe NSW 2141
Country
Australia
Secondary sponsor category [1] 287093 0
Individual
Name [1] 287093 0
J. Matt McCrary
Address [1] 287093 0
The University of Sydney, Cumberland Campus
75 East Street
Lidcombe NSW
Country [1] 287093 0
Australia
Secondary sponsor category [2] 287094 0
Individual
Name [2] 287094 0
Dr. Mark Halaki
Address [2] 287094 0
The University of Sydney, Cumberland Campus
75 East Street
Lidcombe NSW
Country [2] 287094 0
Australia
Secondary sponsor category [3] 287095 0
Individual
Name [3] 287095 0
Dr. Evgeny Sorkin
Address [3] 287095 0
Sydney Conservatorium of Music
1 Conservatorium Rd
Sydney NSW 2000
Country [3] 287095 0
Australia

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Approved
Ethics committee name [1] 290277 0
University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 290277 0
Level 6, Jane Foss Russell
The University of Sydney
NSW 2006 Australia
Ethics committee country [1] 290277 0
Australia
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 290277 0
Approval date [1] 290277 0
06/12/2013
Ethics approval number [1] 290277 0
2013/869

Summary
Brief summary
Warming up is considered an integral part of pre-performance preparation in sport and music, and yet little information exists on how to best prepare to play. As such, this study will investigate the effects of core muscle, general cardiovascular, and on-instrument warm-ups on upper extremity and core muscle activity during violin performance. Additionally, the effects of the three warm-ups on participant audible performance quality will be analysed. It is predicted that both the use of warm-up and the mode undertaken will have a variable positive effect on muscle activity and sound quality.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Presentation at 2015 American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting in San Diego, CA, USA, May 2015

Presentation at 2015 Performing Arts Medical Association Symposium in Snowmass, CO, USA, July 2015
Public notes

Contacts
Principal investigator
Name 44786 0
Dr Bronwen Ackermann
Address 44786 0
University of Sydney, Cumberland Campus
75 East Street
Lidcombe NSW 2141
Country 44786 0
Australia
Phone 44786 0
+61 2 9519 4084
Fax 44786 0
Email 44786 0
bronwen.ackermann@sydney.edu.au
Contact person for public queries
Name 44787 0
Mr J. Matt McCrary
Address 44787 0
University of Sydney, Cumberland Campus
75 East Street
Lidcombe NSW 2141
Country 44787 0
Australia
Phone 44787 0
+61 4 6869 4489
Fax 44787 0
Email 44787 0
jmcc4963@sydney.edu.au
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 44788 0
Mr J. Matt McCrary
Address 44788 0
University of Sydney, Cumberland Campus
75 East Street
Lidcombe NSW 2141
Country 44788 0
Australia
Phone 44788 0
+61 4 6869 4489
Fax 44788 0
Email 44788 0
jmcc4963@sydney.edu.au

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary