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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
A trial of mindfulness meditation to reduce anger and violence in Thai youth, quasi-experimental design
Scientific title
A study on the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation to reduce anger and violence in Technical College students in Thailand.
Secondary ID [1] 282651 0
'Nil Known'
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Anger in Thai youths 289353 0
Condition category
Condition code
Alternative and Complementary Medicine 289688 289688 0 0
Other alternative and complementary medicine

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
A mindfulness meditation intervention emphasises concentration,is implemented from 9.00 am to 5.00 pm (7 hours) a day for 3 consecutive weeks.
Concentration training began with a sitting meditation and follow by a walking meditation.

According to sitting mediation, participants sat quietly with eyes closed and placed their attention on breathing either at the tip of the nose or from the diaphragm. The sitting meditation was operated approximately 3 hours (9.00-12.00) in the morning.

Next, a walking meditation was used as an alternative to sitting. In walking meditation, participants simply stood, then began to walk at a fairly slow but normal walking pace and in a normal manner. The walking meditation was carried out in the afternoon from 1.30 pm to 5 pm.
Intervention code [1] 287317 0
Comparator / control treatment
Mindfulness Meditation is applied for intervention group for 3 weeks. As control group, there is no any activity being applied as "no treatment". Control participants attend a normal class in the college.
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 289780 0
Anger emotions determine as high anger when are above 75th percentile, and normal emotion when are lower than 75th percentile.

The State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2) scale is a 32-item questionnaire developed to measure characteristic styles of anger emotions.
Timepoint [1] 289780 0
Pre-test is assessed one week prior to intervention. Post-test is conducted 1 and 3 months follow-up.
Primary outcome [2] 289781 0
Violence behaviours measure harmful activities within 30 days.

The measure of violent behavior used in this study was based on the Pittsburgh Youth Study’s measure of serious violence. The self-reported measure consists of five items: aggravated assault; two robbery items; rape; and gang fights.
Timepoint [2] 289781 0
Pre-test measurement is implemented 1 week before, and 1 and 3 months post-test after finishing intervention.
Secondary outcome [1] 303229 0
Timepoint [1] 303229 0

Key inclusion criteria
Full-time students in all year levels within every department in a technical college.
Minimum age
16 Years
Maximum age
22 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
Exclusion criteria is absent interventions at least 3 days. Also, they have lost contact, dropped out and expelled from the college in post-intervention period (1-3 month).

Study design
Purpose of the study
Educational / counselling / training
Allocation to intervention
Non-randomised trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
All full-time students in the college are invited to the study,and the allcocation for either intervention or control group based on a classroom timetable.
If they have a rigid timetable- they will allocate to control group.
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Quasi-randomisation method is used in the study. The allocation is based on willingness and the classroom timetable.
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis
The sample size in the study was determined by using type I error, type II error, and standard deviations and the number of sample sizes were 36 for both groups. Nevertheless, forty participants were recruited for the mindfulness meditation group and fifty-six for the control group in order to achieve the study design.

Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare scores on the dependent measures at pre- and post-test (1-month and 3-month follow-up). Independent t-tests were used to calculate intervention effects between pre-treatment and post-treatment for all measurement scales for both the intervention and control groups.

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment outside Australia
Country [1] 5139 0
State/province [1] 5139 0

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 287429 0
Name [1] 287429 0
Flinders University
Address [1] 287429 0
GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001, South Australia
Country [1] 287429 0
Primary sponsor type
Dr. Nualnong Wongtongkam
School of Biomedical Science, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, 2795 Australia
Secondary sponsor category [1] 286176 0
Name [1] 286176 0
Address [1] 286176 0
Country [1] 286176 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 289409 0
Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 289409 0
Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia
Ethics committee country [1] 289409 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 289409 0
Approval date [1] 289409 0
Ethics approval number [1] 289409 0

Brief summary
The effectiveness of Mindfulness Meditation is evaluated in response to reduce anger expression and violent behaviours.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 40658 0
Dr Nualnong Wongtongkam
Address 40658 0
School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Panorama Ave, Bathurst, NSW, 2795.
Country 40658 0
Phone 40658 0
+61 02 63384309
Fax 40658 0
Email 40658 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 40659 0
Dr Nualnong Wongtongkam
Address 40659 0
School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Panorama Ave, Bathurst, NSW, 2795.
Country 40659 0
Phone 40659 0
+61 02 63384309
Fax 40659 0
Email 40659 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 40660 0
Dr Nualnong Wongtongkam
Address 40660 0
School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Panorama Ave, Bathurst, NSW, 2795.
Country 40660 0
Phone 40660 0
+61 02 63384309
Fax 40660 0
Email 40660 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary